Computer Awareness Study Notes on Five Generations of Computers

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Five Generations of Computers: Computer Awareness is one of the most important subjects that come in the Banking exam. However, not many candidates pay a great deal of attention towards this particular subject. 

Computers form the basis of the working any organization in today’s age. If you are looking forward to working in a bank, then you need to have a basic understanding of computers. This is exactly what this section of the exams tests you for.

Here We have listed the important of Computer Awareness Study Material for competitive exams. Here we are providing Study Notes of Computer.


Computer Awareness Study Notes on Five Generations of Computers


 

The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful, more efficient and reliable devices.

S.NO Generation & Description
1. First Generation
The period of first generation : 1942-1954.
Vaccum tube based.
2. Second Generation
The period of second generation : 1952-1964.
Transistor based
3. Third Generation
The period of third generation : 1964-1972
Integrated Circuit based.
4. Fourth Generation
The period of fourth generation : 1972-1990
VLSI microprocessor based
5. Fifth Generation
The period of fifth generation : 1990-onwards.
ULSI microprocessor based

 

First Generation (1940-1956) 

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.

First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.

Some computer of this generation were:
1. ENIAC
2. EDVAC
3. UNIVAC
4. IBM-701
5. IBM-650

Second Generation

The period of second generation was 1952-1964.

This generation using the transistor were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vaccum tubes.In this generation, magnetic cores were used as primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices.

In this generation assembly language and high level programming language like FORTRAN, COBOL were used. There were Batch processing and Multiprogramming Operating system used.

Some computer of this generation were:
1. IBM 1620
2.IBM 7094
3. CDC 1604
4. CDC 3600
5.UNIVAC 1108

Third Generation

The period of third generation was 1964-1972.

The third generation of computer is marked by the use of Integrated Circuits (IC’s) in place of transistors.A single I.C has many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry.The I.C was invented by Jack Kilby. This development made computers smaller in size, reliable and efficient.

In this generation Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time, Multi-programming Operating System were used.

High level language (FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68 etc.) were used during this generation.

Some computer of this generation were:
1.IBM-360 series
2. Honeywell-6000 series
3. PDP(Personal Data Processor)
4. IBM-370/168
5. TDC-316

Fourth Generation

The period of Fourth Generation was 1972-1990.

The fourth generation of computers is marked by the use of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits.VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation. Fourth Generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to personal computer (PC) revolution.

In this generation Time sharing, Real time, Networks, Distributed Operating System were used.

All the Higher level languages like C and C++, DBASE etc. were used in this generation.

Some computer of this generation were:
1.DEC 10
2. STAR 1000
3. PDP 11
4. CRAY-1(Super Computer)
5.CRAY-X-MP(Super Computer)

Fifth Generation

The period of Fifth Generation is 1990-till date.

In the fifth generation, the VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components.

This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software. AI is an emerging branch in computer science, which interprets means and method of making computers think like human beings.

All the Higher level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net etc. are used in this generation.

Some computer types of this generation are:
1. Desktop
2. Laptop
3. NoteBook
4. UltraBook

 

Read More:

1. Computer Awareness Notes Click Here
2. Computer Awareness Quiz Click Here

 

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